Table of Contents
1- General lnformation
2- Applicatıon and Usage
3- Polyurethane Varnishes and Topcoats
4- Cellulosic Varnishes and T opcoats
5- Acrylic Varnishes and Topcoats
6- Wood Colorants
Paints, primers and varnishes are the chemical materials that are used far decoration and alsa far the aim of protection; which form thin films on the surface they are applied on.
Paint has four major components:
- Other additives
On the other hand, Varnishes are the chemicals which contain binders, solvents and other additives. They do not contain pigments, so the varnishes are transparent.
it is a multi-step process far the surface coatings to get ready far the application. These steps are:
- Choosing the surface coating
- Storage of the surface coating
- Preparation of the coating
- Preparation of the surface
- Application of the surface coating
Each step affects the results that are expected, in a positive or in a negative way. So every step must be followed carefully and attention should be paid ta the recommendations.
APPLICATION AND USAGE
IMPORTANT KEY POINTS FOR THE APPLICATION OF PAINT and VARNISH
Clean the surface.
When the surface is ready, apply the primer and the sanding sealer batlı in the same day. Be sure that your workplan schedule is avaliable far this application.
Show special care far the corners, edges, screws and nuts. Before applying the topcoat; apply one coat of primer / sanding sealer, preferably by using a brush.
lf the weather temperature is under +5° C and the humidity is over 85%; do not perform the application.
Control the film thickness of the coating so you can apply more where it is needed.
When the application is finished; examine alt the surfaces. After the examination, make the last touches and repair the faulty parts by the appropriate methods.
Do not start application before reading the product specifications.
Do not use any thinner more than needed.
Do not use any other kind of thinner than recommended.
Mix before using.
While preparing the two-component paints / varnishes, pay attention to the proportions signified in the specification sheets. Do not change the rates for any reason.
Once the two-component paints / varnishes are mixed, they must be used in a limited time zone. So prepare only according to the amount of usage.
Before and after every application; clean alt your equipment with the proper solvent.
CHOOSING THE SURFACE COATING (Paint- Varnish]
The existing specifications, the experience that has been gained and similar examples constitute a good starting point. Type of the surface for the varnish/paint application; the environment that material is going to be held; properties that are expected from the material and the application method are the main factors that affect the choice of the material to be used.
Each chemical that constitute the paints / varnishes has their own specific properties and this is un der the control and responsibility of the manufacturer. After the production is completed, the paint is expected to have a set of specific properties and these properties are checked in every production batch. The user should ask for the manufacturers· specifications for every kind of paint, varnish and other kinds of products that they use and they should also check the specific properties themselves.
PREPARATION OF THE SURFACE COATING
in paint / varnish preparation process, the following general rules should be followed:
- A thinner suggested by the manufacturer must be used.
- The addition of thinner must be done according to the desired application viscosity.
- While preparing the two-compoııent paints / varnishes, proportioııs must be done according to the ratios that are specified by the manufacturer.
- The precipitation and separation problems occur more quickly in paints / primers / varnishes that are thinned. Thus, the amount of thinned paints / varnishes should not exceed the amount of daily consumption.
- Once the two-conıponent paints / varnishes are mixed, they have a specific time period for usage; if these time periods are exceeded, the product can no longer be used.
- After the product is thinned down to the desired viscosity, it should definitely be filtered with an appropriate filter.
PREPARATION OF THE SURFACE
in the previous sections; the key points tor the choice, storage and preparation of the surface coating are mentioned. However meticulous care is paid tor the abovementioned issues; the expected results cannot be achieved unless the surface on which the paint / varnish is going to be applied, is cleaned properly. Any kind of foreign substance lying on the surface such as oil, grease, dust, dirt and rust would affect the hardness, glossiness and resistance properties that are expected from the surface coating, in a negative way.
APPLICATION OF THE SURFACE COATING
Undercoating should take place immediately after the completion of the appropriate surface preparation. 2 layers of primer must be applied on the area on which paint / varnish is going to be applied, in order to form a fully suitable surface. Primer provides adhesion between the layers and it increases the thickness of the paint and therefore enhances the endurance of the system. in order to have glossiness and a decorative appearance, 2-3 layers of topcoat paint should be applied in accordance with the properties of the surface to be painted.
PROBLEMS THAT CAN BE ENCOUNTERED DURING PAINT and VARNISH APPLICATIONS
|DRY SPRAYING||The falling of paint or varnish on the surface in powder form.||Holding spray gun very far from the surface or applying it too quickly; extremely low or high paint/varnish viscosity; not using the proper thinner; extremely high air pressure.||The reasons that cause the problem should be taken into consideration and SlJCh problematic surfaces should be sanded again and afterwards another coat should b applied on the surface.|
|ORANGE PEEL APPERENCE||An orange peel-like rilm is produced on the surface that lhe painl/varnish is applied on.||High application viscosity; not using the proper thinner; extremely high application pressure; extremely high temperature difference between the paint and the surface; holding the spray gun too close ta the surface; extremely thick application.||The reasons that cause the problem should be taken into consideration and SlJCh problematic surfaces should be sanded again and afterwards another coat should be applied on the surface.|
|BOİLİNG||The formation of surface defects such as pinhead like holes or little air bubbles on the paint or varnish applied surfaces..||The coats that are applied are too thick due to thinning with less thinner because of the fact that the viscosity of paints and varnishes are thin on warm days; not using the proper thinner; applying the second coat without giving the first coat a sufficient drying time.||in paint and varnish applications, the second coat should be applied after waiting 45-60 minutes after the first coat is applied; during extremely hat days 3-5% of retarder should be added to the paint or varnish. The surfaces which are defected due to boiling should be sanded and orıe rnore coat should be applied taking the reasons that have caused the problem irıto account.|
|TUB-LIKE CRATER OPENINGS||The formation of cavities in the form of tub-like craters on the paint or varnish applied surfaces.||The usage of silicon based rnaterial on the paint applied surface; oil and water corıtarnination in the paint from the compressor; contaminations such as oil and sweat on the pairıted surface.||Silicon based production should not be done prior to or after the application in paint or varnish applications; oil-water contamination from the compressor should be avoided. The surfaces which are defected due to this problem should be sanded and one more coat should be applied taking the reasons that have caused the problem into account.|
|FLOWING AND SAGGING||The flowing of paint in vertical and inclined surfaces; therefore not producing a proper film.||Applying excessively thick paint on vertical and inclined surfaces at once; not using the proper thinner; extremely low application viscosity of the paint; holding the spray gun at different angles instead of holding it vertically, causing the paint/varnish to be clustered at one point.||Attention should be paid to the paint/varnish viscosity; application should be done as thin coats especially on the vertical surfaces; the distance of the spray gun should be 20 cm. for normal applications and 30 cm. for high pressure applications. The surfaces which are defected due to this problem should be sanded and one more coat should be applied taking the reasons that have caused the problem into account.|
|WRIKLING- DISLOCATION||Paint/varnish not givirıg a proper surface; the film havirıg a wrinkled and defected appearance.||The application of the topcoat paint/varnish being extremely thick; rıot using proper primer or sanding sealer; application on not sufficiently dried-cured paint/varnish; not using the proper thinner; applying not compatible paints on top of each other.||Proper sanding sealer or prim er should be used under topcoats. lf the wrinklingdislocation problem is not very serious, the defected surfaces should be sanded and one more coat should be applied; if the wrinklingdislocation problem is serious, then the whole surface should be cleaned and repainted.|
|DELAYS IN SANDING TIME||The applied primer painl or sanding sealer do not become suilable ror sanding wilhin lhe time specified by the producer or there is a delay in lerms or consumer’s expectations.||Extremely low ambient temperature; extremely damp wooden surfaces; extremely thick application; the most important of all is not recognizing the brand or the system in terms of drying time for the sanding process.||Application un der extremely damp or cold conditions should be avoided; application should not be done extremely thick.|
|FAILING IN OBTAINING SUFFICIENT GLOSSINESS||The desired glossiness or vibrant appearance cannot be obtained after the application of the topcoat glossy paint ar varnish.||Providing irısufficient amount and quality impregnation material in accordance with the surface and type of the wood; incornpatibility of the topcoat paint/varnish and the impregnation material; impregnation material not having sufficient hardness, filling and spreading properties; usage of poor quality thinner in topcoat applications; not applying sufficiently thick topcoat paint.||Sufficient amount of impregnation material should certainly be provided prior to applying the topcoat glossy paint or varnish. A high quality thinner should be used with the topcoat on the well prepared surfaces and the topcoat should be applied with sufficient thickness.|
|WHITENING||A misty-whitish surface appearance is obtained after the application of the topcoat or varnish.||Carrying out the application of paint or varnish under very humid conditions; not using the proper thinner.||Application should be avoided in places wher·e the humidity is above 45-60%. lf it must be carried out, then 3-5% ratio retarder should be added to the ınixture; the recommended thinner should be used. The defected surfaces should be sanded to eliminate the roughness and one rnore coat of paint/varnish should be applied.|
STORAGE OF THE SURFACE COATING
Paints, varnishes, primers and similar products all have a specific expiry dates. it these products are stored under unfavourable conditions for long time periods, some unwanted changes in these products may occur. By taking a few basic precautions; risks such as precipitation, decomposition and crusting during the storage process can be minimized. in addition to this, one should note that the surface coatings are tlammable.
in light of this information; the storage unıt ıs expected to have the following properties:
- All the aforementioned coating materials should be stored in different buildings or should be stored in separate areas inside the same building. This unit must be isolated from heat, sparkles, open fire and direct sunlight. Also the storage unit should have an air ventilation system.
- The packages must not be opened before application; the packages that are opened for checking and testing purposes should be used first.
- A work flow plan based on a first-in first-out approach should be constructed.
- Big packages of products should be turned upside down in every 2-3 months.
POLYURETHANE VARNISHES and PAINTS
POLYURETHANE SANDING SEALER
Two-component, polyurethane based sanding sealer containing modified alkyd resin that has a high filling strength and that can be sanded easily. Since it provides a nice spread, the topcoat varnishes that are to be applied on this varnish, gives a very sound surface. Green Lack Polyurethane Sanding Sealer is designed far making all kinds of massive and coated surfaces ready far topcoat varnish and painting applications. it is possible to use Cellulosic, Polyurethane and Acrylic Systems on it.
POLYURETHANE TOPCOAT MATT VARNISHES
Two-component polyurethane based topcoat varnish which contains alkyd resin, has a high solid, a soft touch & gliding surface and dries quickly. Gives films that have a high scratching resistance; that are hard and resistant to impacts, resistant to water, detergent and domestic chemicals. Depending on tlıe desired dimness, it is applied on the massive and coated surfaces of indoor furniture, on top of polyurethane and polyester sanding sealers. it has different varieties such as silky matt, special matt and matt appearance.
POLYURETHANE GLOSSY VARNISH
Two-component, polyurethane based varnish containing a special resin; that has a perfect gloss and gloss endurance. it gives a film that has a nice spread and that is resistant to water, detergent and domestic chemicals. it is applied on all kinds of massive and coated surfaces of indoor furniture; surfaces which aı-e filled with polyurethane sanding sealer and surfaces that have been sanded, in rder to give the surface a glossy appearance.
Two-component polyurethane based topcoat paint containing a special resin that has a high gloss. it gives a film that has non- yellowing resistance; that is a highly scratch resistant, hard and resistant to impacts and water detergent and domestic chemicals. it is applied on all kinds of massive and coated surfaces of indoor furniture on top of cellulosic and polyurethane primers. Apart from the standard black and white colors; it can be produced in any desired color with glossy, silky matt or matt appearance.
POLYURETHANE WHITE PRIMER
Two-component, polyurethane based sanding sealer containing modified alkyd resin that has a high filling and covering strength and that can be sanded easily. it provides a perfect adhesion and a very nice spread on all kinds of surfaces. Due to the fact that it doesn·t get affected by the solvent of the topcoat paint that is going to be applied on it; the bottom layer doesn’t shift.
CELLULOSIC VARNISHES and PAINTS
CELLULOSIC SANDING SEALER
Nitro cellulose resin based sanding sealer that gives a film due to the vaporization of the solvent. it is used as the floor filler for all kinds of massive and coated surfaces of indoor furniture. it is preferred due to its high filling strength, drying speed, easily and comfortably sanding and being easily adhered on all kinds of surfaces. During the application, it is thinned with Green Lack Cellulosic Thinner with a 60-80 % ratio and applied between the layers with a pistol, waiting 10-15 ıninutes for each layer. Applied as 2-3 crosswise layers. After 3-4 hours, it is sanded and the topcoat is applied on it.
CELLULOSIC TOPCOAT VARNISHES
Nitro cellulose resin based topcoat varnish that gives a film due to the vaporization of the solvent. it is preferred due to the fact that it dries quickly and it gives a hard and elastic film. After applying cellulosic, polyurethane, polyester sanding sealer or sanding sealer with acid hardener; it is used to give all kinds of massive and coated surfaces of indoor furniture a glossy, matt or silky matt appearance. During the application, it is thinned with Green Lack Cellulosic Thinner with a 60-80 % ratio and applied between the layers with a pistol, waiting 10-15 minutes far each layer. Applied as 2-3 crosswise layers.
it is used in filling the surfaces of all kinds of MDF, massive and coated surfaces of indooı- furniture. it is a primer that gives a quick drying, provides easy and comfortable sanding elastic film. it has a high filling and covering strength. During the application, it is thinned with Green Lack Cellulosic Thinner with a 60-80 % ratio and applied between the layers with a pistol, waiting 10-15 minutes tor each layer. Applied as 2-3 crosswise layers.
CELLULOSIC TOPCOAT PAINTS
Topcoat paint that has a high covering strength and that dries quickly. Due to its special resin, it is glossy and it keeps this glossiness tor a long period. it is applied by thinning with Green Lack Cellulosic Thinner with a 60-80 % ratio and then applied as 2-3 layers, on all kinds of massive and coated surfaces of indoor furniture on top of cellulosic, polyurethane, polyester sanding sealers and primers or sanding sealer with acid hardener.
Nitro cellulose resin based, rapid drying, transparent wood colorant. it has a high coloring strength; it produces a flexible film that doesn·t bleed color. it is applied prior to sanding sealer in order to color all kinds of massive and coated wood surface. The colorant can be thinned with a 50-60 % ratio, depending on the desired color tane, using Green Lack Cellulosic thinner during the application process.
UNIVERSAL WOOD COLORANT
Green Lack Universal Wood Colorant is a wood colorant that can be thinned either with water or thinner; has a high coloring strength and a high light sensitivity; dries quickly. it is used in order to color all kinds of massive and coated wood surface. it doesn·t bleed color. Different colors can be obtained by mixing the colors with each other. Depending on the color strength it can be thinned either with water or thinner and can be applied with a brush, a pi ece of cloth or a pistol. The application should be finished with water if it has been initiated with water; water and Cellulosic Thinner should not be used together. When thinned with water, sanding sealer is applied on it after 1-2 hours at 20°C; when thinned with cellulosic thinner, sanding sealer is applied on it after 20-30 minutes. lf desired, it can be added in sanding sealers and topcoat varnishes provided that the adding ratio doesn’t exceed 3%.
ACRYLIC VARNISHES and PAINTS
Two-component, acrylic resin based topcoat paints. Acrylic paint is designed for usage on indoor furniture and decorations, all kinds of massive and coated wood surfaces. it is a paint that spreads nicely; that adheres perfectly; that is hard and scratch proof and has yellowing resistance. it is applied on acrylic and polyurethane based sanding sealers and sealers. it has a longer drying time when compared to the alkyd polyurethane systems.
ACRYLIC SANDING SEALER
Two-cornponent, acrylic resin based, has a high filling strength, easy ta sand sanding sealer. it is farmulated far indoor furniture and decorations where non-yellowing is desired and far filling all kinds of massive and coated wood surfaces.
Two-component, acrylic resin based topcoat varnish which gives very transparent, hard, elastic and nonyellowing film, due ta its acrylic structure. it has resistance against scratches and impacts. it is designed far usage on indoor furniture and decorations, atl kinds of massive and coated wood surfaces. it can be applied on polyurethane based sealers; however, far the works that require transparency and non-yellowing it is recommended to be applied on acrylic sealers. it has different varieties such as silky matt, special matt and matt appearance according to the desired glossiness.
ACRYLIC GLOSSY VARNISH
Two-component, acrylic resin based topcoat glossy varnish. it gives a film that is glossier and that has a higher resistance far domestic chemicals and detergents. The drying tim es are longer compared ta the acrylic systems that have a less amount of hardener. it is applied on acrylic and polyurethane sanding sealers. lf desired, a more saturated and glossy surface can be maintained when applied as the protecting varnish on topcoat paints in lacquer systems.
The solvent mixture that allows you to thin the paint and varnish to the application viscosity is called thinner. There are different types of thinner (i.e. cellulosic, polyurethane, acrylic ete.) according to the system that is used.
Thinner is one of the most important components in paint and varnish applications. Because thinner has a direct effect on the drying of the varnish and paint and it allows the paint and varnish to give a proper film on the wooden surface. Boiling, orange peel appearance, sagging, whitening, graininess are all thinner based problems and these problems can be eliminated by using an appropriate thinner in accordance with the atmospheric conditions.
Cellulosic thinners are used in thinning cellulosic paints and varnishes. One of the most common mistakes that the users make is using cellulosic thinner with polyurethane ar other systems. Polyurethane systems are very sensitive against water and alcohol. Because of the alcohol and water bearing solvents that exist in cellulosic thinners; problems such as not drying, boiling, whitening, decreasing of the scratching resistance can be seen in polyurethane systems. in order to eliminate such problems, polyurethane thinners must be used in polyurethane systems.